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Venus
Missions to Venus
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Venus

Mariner|Venera|Vega 1&2|Galileo|Pioneer Venus|Magellan

Mariner Missions to Venus: Mariner's 2, 5 & 10!



Mariner 2; Launch Date: 1962-08-27

The Mariner 2 spacecraft was the second of a series of spacecraft used for planetary exploration in the flyby, or nonlanding, mode and the first spacecraft to successfully encounter another planet. Mariner 2 was a backup for the Mariner 1 mission which failed shortly after launch to Venus. The objective of the Mariner 2 mission was to fly by Venus and return data on the planet's atmosphere, magnetic field, charged particle environment, and mass. It also made measurements of the interplanetary medium during its cruise to Venus and after the flyby.



Mariner 5; Launch Date: 1967-06-14

The Mariner 5 spacecraft was the fifth in a series of spacecraft used for planetary exploration in the flyby mode. Mariner 5 was a refurbished backup spacecraft for the Mariner 4 mission and was converted from a Mars mission to a Venus mission. The spacecraft was fully attitude stabilized, using the sun and Canopus as references. A central computer and sequencer subsystem supplied timing sequences and computing services for other spacecraft subsystems. The spacecraft passed 4,000 km from Venus on October 19, 1967. The spacecraft instruments measured both interplanetary and Venusian magnetic fields, charged particles, and plasmas, as well as the radio refractivity and UV emissions of the Venusian atmosphere. The mission was termed a success.

Mariner 10


Mariner 10; Launch Date: 1973-11-03

Mariner 10 was the seventh successful launch in the Mariner series and the first spacecraft to use the gravitational pull of one planet (Venus) to reach another (Mercury). The spacecraft flew by Mercury three times in a heliocentric orbit and returned images and data on the planet. Mariner 10 is the only spacecraft to have visited Mercury.

***Messenger - NASA - 2004
***Planet-C - ISAS - 2007
***BepiColombo - ESA - 2009


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